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As explained by Fastems, CNC stands for Computerized Numerical Control, a method of controlling machine tools or devices through computer automation instead of direct human manipulation. Machine tools employ various processes like milling or turning to transform raw materials into finished workpieces, known as discrete manufacturing. Originally, NC-machines used paper tape or punched cards for motion control until computers took over in the 1960s, leading to the term CNC. The programming language responsible for translating NC-programs into precise machine tool movements is called G-code.

Over time, CNC machines evolved from custom-built solutions to versatile, general-purpose machinery, catering to various processes and part diameters. Today, CNC machining centers dominate the market, suitable for materials ranging from metals to composites, wood, plastics, and more.

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