According to Industry Today:
“With the development of PCs, numerical systems penetrated almost all industries. Today, CNC machines are popular with most manufacturers across the board for manufacturing and fabricating applications. CNC systems are a significant part of modern machining technologies. CNC is short for Computer Numerical Control, and the machine mechanism and tools are connected to a unique digital control system.
Principles of CNC and Traditional Machining
“The Numerical Control system is made up of both software and hardware. The operator works with the software to monitor the machine tools and to create programs. Numerical Control programs are lists of instructions instructing how the machine should work to process parts. The NC hardware reads the program and tells the machine tool how to act.
“The traditional machining implies that the operator directly controls all the machine tool’s movements. The operator has a choice of when to move the device. He also decides which feed, and where and when to stop. The operator used special rulers and gauges that are embedded in the control levers for better precision.
Advantages of CNC Machining
“The CNC machine operator is safe from any sharp parts behind a protective construction. The operator can see what is going on in the machine tool via the glass. The operator does not necessarily need to go close to the spindle or mill. The operator does not have to come near the cooling fluids. Some fluids are dangerous to human skin, depending on the material.
Economy of Labor
“Traditional machine tools needed the operator to pay close attention and move each part of the tool. As a result, each worker could only operate one machine tool. With the CNC, this changed, and most pieces only take about half an hour to process during each setup. The CNC machine tool cuts without help, and the operator does not have to do anything. The tool automatically moves, with the operator just checking for errors in the setup or program. This situation means the operator has free time in between, time that can be used to operate more tools. With one operator with several machine tools, you can save on the costs of hiring more people to work the machines.
Reduced Error in Set-Up
“Traditional machine tools rely on the proficiency of the operator in using measuring instruments. Some good workers are capable of setting up parts with a lot of precision, but they are very few. This is why CNC systems employ a special coordinate measuring probe, which is installed into the spindle. The probe touches the fixed part to set its position. The coordinate system zero points are certified so that the setup errors are reduced.
Reduced Test Runs
“Traditional machining has a few test parts. The operator must get acquainted with the technology and might miss some things while doing the first part. CNC systems have ways to avoid doing test runs. They use visualization systems that allow the operator to see what will happen after the tool passes are finished.
Higher Cutting Parameters
“High-speed cnc turning service machining is now available courtesy of the sealed off cutting area. Chips fly at high speeds, followed by a spray of coolant fluid as it is sprayed at high pressure during machining. When rates reach 10000 rpm or more, manual operations are impossible. Since the cutting speeds are very high, it is essential to keep the chip width and feed rate stable to avoid vibrations, which is impossible to do manually.
Higher Machine Tool Flexibility
“The traditional method was that a milling machine made planes and groves; a lathe makes tapers and cylinders, while a drilling machine drills holes. CNC machining combines the above in a single device, as opposed to the traditional machines where you needed separate machines. Since you can program the trajectory of the tools, you can easily replicate whichever movement you choose on any machine tool.
“The traditional machining was tedious and had more possibilities for errors. CNC machining came along to ease the burden of having to do everything manually. The CNC assures you of worker safety, reduces the need to employ more operators as the CNC allows multitasking and myriad other advantages.”